Friday, July 17, 2020
How to Dissolve a Group Conflict Quickly Conflict is an unfortunate, yet an undeniable part of human existence. If youâre a team leader, then you know that your role involves that of the âpeacekeeperâ. You need to learn to dissolve conflict to guarantee the team can achieve common goals and continue performing to the highest level.In this post, Iâm going to help you identify the steps and strategies you need to take and adopt in order to dissolve a group conflict quickly. Youâll learn about classifying the conflict, engaging in a constructive manner, and adopting strategies that help the team find an effective solution.DEFINING GROUP CONFLICTConflicts are not alike. They come in all shapes and sizes, and more importantly, conflicts can have both negative and positive consequences. You therefore should never approach conflict, as it is always the same and just assume it will lead to a negative disruption in the workplace.As Iâll show you during the post, the reasons behind the conflict can be varied and the outcome can actually lead to a beneficial result for your business â" so donât despair if your team starts arguing.Before examining the different ways you can classify group conflicts, you should note the different types of conflicts. Group conflict essentially is just one of a subset of the five common conflict types. These five are:Conflict within the individual â" These are generally value-based conflicts the person has within themselves. For example, if you are a vegan and you are passionate about animal welfare, you might be conflicted if you worked at a steak place and you had to serve meat, even though you find in unethical. Similarly, your position might lead to conflicts â" a police officer attending a party on his free time might be conflicted with people using illegal substances, yet feel like itâs not the time and place to start arresting his own friends.Interpersonal conflict â" These conflicts occur between two or more people and it is the most common form of conflict. The reason can vary from power conflict to conflicts in value. You might, for example, be at locker heads with another person at work over which method to use for accounting.Conflict between an individual and a team â" Individuals might not just clash with each others, but also with a team. This would mean that one person is in disagreement with a team of people. Imagine you were a waitress and you felt the rest of the team is not putt ing enough effort in customer service, yet the tips (you mainly earn) were divided among the whole team. You might therefore be in conflict with the rest of the group.Intergroup conflict â" You can also find conflict among different groups of people. This could happen in an organization as well. For instance, your accounting team might feel strongly that the sales team is not being efficient enough in cutting costs, while the sales team might disagree with the notion and feel like the accountants donât understand their pressures.Inter-organizational conflict â" These group-based conflicts can occur in a much larger scale, meaning two separate organizations or entities are in conflict with each other.In this post, Iâm focusing on the team-based conflicts. These are essentially interpersonal problems, which appear between two or more people on a team. Group conflict also has a disruptive element to it, even when it isnât necessarily negative. For good and for worse, a team con flict always affects teamwork â" the team doesnât perform optimally during a conflict situation.As the above already alluded to, group conflict can have a variety of reasons. The most common reason is an imbalance between the perceptions, goals, and values of the team.Essentially, your opinion might differ from that of Person X and this creates an imbalance within the team and makes achieving the objectives difficult at that time. Figuring out the reasoning behind the conflict â" classifying it â" can be the key to solving it.CLASSIFYING THE CAUSES OF GROUP CONFLICTAbove I identified some of the different ways conflict occurs and touched on some of the reasons people find themselves in a confrontational situation. Aside from understanding who is in conflict â" an individual or a group â" itâs also important to understand the causes of the conflict or the driving forces of the conflict. What is sustaining the conflict? What is the basis of the conflict?By answering these que stions and identifying the underlying causes and manifestations of the conflict, you can better resolve it. There are three key ways to classify a group conflict. You can view it through its functional attribute, its origin, and its behavior.Functional attributeConflicts within a team do not always result in a negative outcome. This essentially means the conflict situation might not result in a situation where the team is unable to perform normally or that the conflict will result it loss of objectives. Put it another way, a conflict can be either functional or dysfunctional.As mentioned above, a functional conflict would not affect team performance in a significant manner. The rest of the team and the parties of the conflict would still be able to perform their duties and continue to produce results that are on par with the objectives. Nonetheless, there would be some sort of disagreement or argument within the team that is still worth looking into.On the other hand, dysfunctional conflicts are those super disruptive events, where the teamâs ability to work is hindered. The team is influenced by the conflict in a way that partly or wholly prevents the team from achieving the shared goals. This type of conflict can have a long-lasting negative attention and generally requires immediate attention.Origin of conflictYou can also classify the conflict based on the origin of it. This means understanding where the conflict has started and how the situation has evolved â" i.e. do people still believe the conflict is about the thing that started it all. The origins or reasons for disagreements have already been mentioned briefly. To recap, group conflicts tend to be based on:Values of team members.Goals misaligning with the expectations and vice versa.Roles and responsibilities of team members.Lack of resources.Itâs generally helpful if you understand which reason is causing the problems, as it can help tackle the issues head on. For example, if someone in the te am (Person B) doesnât like the values of a Person A, you need to consider a different approach than if the conflict was down to Person A having more resources to do his/her work.In the case of the latter, you can solve the situation by redistribution of resources, more support for Person B, or by providing a simple explanation why A needs more resources. On the other hand, solving a conflict of values can require an effort from both employees to find a compromise.BehaviorFinally, you could also classify the conflict based on the behavior team membersâ use during the conflict. Conflict doesnât always lead to an adverse reaction, where people refuse to talk to each other. There can be positive and constructive behavior manifested during conflict. Like you had functional and dysfunctional conflict, you can also have constructive conflicts and destructive conflicts.Constructive conflicts will help team members grow and develop as workers and human beings. The parties of the confli ct use the opportunity to learn something and improve their skills. The conflict tends to end on a solution and a boost in-group spirit. On the other hand, destructive conflicts are demoralizing and often lead to more polarization within the team. They hardly have a solution, at least a positive one, and they can continue causing disruption within the team later on.Now the reason all of the above matters is that it gives you the starting point to begin solving the conflict. If you know its classification â" the who, the why and the how â" you can use the right types of techniques to solve the problem. FOCUS ON THE GOLDEN RULES OF ENGAGEMENTConflict in a way is always a breakdown in communication. There is a clash in communication, either because something is misunderstood, misinformed, or ill shared. In order to resolve a conflict, you need to first ensure the communication channels are restored and are used efficiently.Communication in conflict matters because it helps in meeting the fundamental need of the ego. Our egos want to be listened to, empathized with, appreciated and empowered. No matter what the conflict and the person âat faultâ; everyone has an ego need that needs attention. So, when you start solving a group conflict, your focus should be on feeding the ego with appropriate communication.You should employ three golden rules of engagement during a conflict situation. These are:Listen actively and respond with empathy. Your focus should always be on ensuring all the sides of the conflict get a fair hearing. Even when the conflict might be resolved in favor of one person or the conflict seems unfair, you need to listen to both sides.Instead of telling the group to âstop arguingâ, you need to get people to open up about the issue at hand. Your focus needs to be on active listening. You can engage in active listening by:Allowing everyone to raise their opinion and explain what they think is the cause of the conflict â" Your job is to ask q uestions that clarify the personâs position, not to give your opinion or counter argue.Understanding what different people are feeling â" You need to see everyoneâs perspective. This can help solve the problem quickly (there might have been a simple misunderstanding) and ensures people feel understood.Focusing on the feelings â" You want to focus on outlining the feelings people are having about the issues at hand and the behaviors they think can help improve the situation.Be active throughout the conflict management process and ensure others are included in the process. Continue engagement throughout the conflict management; your listening shouldnât just be limited to the start of the conflict. You need to listen to: get an understanding of what the problem is, find solutions to the problems, and noticing how well the changes are implemented.Therefore, you canât just take in peopleâs opinion, come up with a solution and apply it with a top-down approach. People who are part of the conflict, directly or indirectly need to have a voice in finding the solution and in implementing it. Not only does this guarantee the solution is more long lasting, it can prevent a future conflict.An important part of staying active as the mediator is ensuring you are seen as âthe impartial middle manâ. You canât take sides on a conflict. Instead you want to help everyone understand the different perspectives at play.Maintain and affirm the group membersâ self esteem. The ego doesnât like when itâs crushed or criticized. You can keep a conflict going on simply by nurturing resentment within the group with bad communication. If you donât listen to one personâs opinion or you publicly tell the group someone is at fault, you hurt the ego and you cause resentment.Even in situations where one side might be ârightâ, you need to support everyone. You want to make them feel their cries werenât invalid or that some of their behaviors have been extremely go od or beneficial. Remember the classic sandwich feedback style? You should ditch it and instead consider the Feedback Wrap, which can be especially beneficial when dealing with conflict situations. Hereâs an introduction to the Feedback Wrap by Management30.com: The above method works because it helps focus on the facts and the feelings, as well as the method going forward. This is part of maintaining a personâs self-esteem during conflict. You want to provide them support and the confidence to move beyond the conflict.For example, Person A might be in conflict with the team because he feels he works harder than everyone else. But the team might be performing as needed and the conflict is just about the different approach to work ethic.Instead of telling Person A to stop complaining, you need to support them and make them feel appreciated. This means understanding their frustrations with other peopleâs work ethic, while helping them be a better team member in inspiring others to work harder, rather than just complain about it.HOW TO DEAL WITH CONFLICTOnce you understand the type of group conflict you have at hand and you apply effective communication methods to solving the conflict, you can focus on the actual steps that help eliminate the issue. Youâll need to take these five steps in order to resolve a conflict situation quickly.Step 1: Acknowledge the conflict fast, but calm things down.While you need to be quick in identifying thereâs a problem, donât try to rush things through. Conflict resolution doesnât have to last forever, but it also canât be rushed or forced. When you notice a problem within a team â" either because you hear/see something, someone complains about a problem, or the performance suddenly drops â" acknowledge it immediately.Let the group know you are looking into the issue and start examining the reasons and communicating with the group, keeping the above tips in mind. You should never try ignoring an issue no matter h ow minor it seems to you or keeping things going until later, as you might turn a small problem into a big issue.Not only can delays build resentment within the group, but it can also lead to further problems that might make finding a solution harder. Even just simply acknowledging the issue and allowing people to voice their opinions can be enough to calm things down and dissolve the immediate disruption.Nonetheless, you also shouldnât try finding a solution on a whim. Acknowledgement doesnât equal pushing a solution forward. You donât want to react to a conflict by picking âthe winnerâ and moving on. As mentioned above, there needs to be a careful assessment of the perspectives and appropriate focus on ensuring everyoneâs opinion is heard. Essentially, you need to avoid rushing into negative behaviors like:Finding the person at fault, i.e. pointing fingers.Insulting group members or complaining to people about the conflict or behavior within the group.Making assumption s about the problems or the solutions.Handing ultimatums to team members.When a conflict arises, you need to acknowledge the situation and make sure everyone in the team know you are aware of the issues and that you are going to work with the team to solve the problem. You then need to take a breather and start engaging with the team in conversation, reserving any judgment until later.Step 2: Listen to each side of the conflict.Like Iâve mentioned at the start, the key to solving a conflict lies in creating appropriate communication channels. This starts by listening to each side of the conflict â" even the people who arenât directly involved in it.You want to have team members provide you with their honest account of the situation. This is often best done face-to-face, ensuring people feel comfortable to speak their minds without the fear of a backlash. You can later have a team-wide conversation as well, but itâs a good idea to allow people with the space to speak alone as well to get a more honest image of what it going on.When you are engaging people in conversation, your focus should be on getting them to talk about the three pillars of conflict:What is happening? Why the conflict is taking place?How to solve the situation?As you have people answering the above questions, youâre actually taking two steps to resolving the problem. First, you get a better idea of what is going on, as well as valuable insight and tips into how things could be resolved. But you also get the team members to rationalize and think about the situation at hand with an outsider.This can help them understand whether thereâs validity in the arguments they are making and perhaps even realize how they could instantly find a way to solve it.Step 3: Start finding common ground.As you engage people in conversation and you start listening to the perspectives, you need to make note of the common ground. Are there certain issues people seem to agree on? What are the common behavio rs or outcomes that people are hoping to get out of the situation?Noticing agreements can help in a conflict situation because it bridges the gap between the disagreements. It forces people to focus on the issues everyone agrees rather than the problems that are dividing opinion. When youâve listened to peopleâs statements and opinions, note down all the things people agree on and start looking for a solution based on this common ground.As Iâve explained previously, engagement is crucial. When you start finding the common group and compiling your thoughts based on the different ideas and opinions, you want to ensure the rest of the group is engaged. Donât just note how the team agrees on improving resource management in your head, but make everyone see this is something everyone is looking to achieve. Make people acknowledge other personâs perspective and the agreements the group has.Furthermore, you need to acknowledge your responsibility it finding the solution. Being a team manager doesnât mean you canât eventually have an opinion or make a judgment call on the next steps. If the conflict looks unlikely to be resolved within the group, you do need to step in.Behavior that is out of bounds (someone is being viciously attacked or abused, for example) must also be tackled swiftly and without a âcompromiseâ. Indeed, itâs crucial to understand that finding common ground doesnât always mean compromising or forcing the âmajorityâ decision on the minority.The fact that the majority thinks Person A shouldnât have access to more resources might not be solved adequately by reducing the resources. Person A might actually need the resources because of Reasons A, B and C. Common ground might not be a compromise an allowing everyone access to the exact resources, but understanding the goals better and explaining to everyone the justifications why Person A needs the extra resources, i.e. increasing accountability and openness.Step 4: Agree on a solutionConflicts canât just be brushed aside when things settle. Telling people about the solution and then moving on can stop the conflict from being a problem for now, but it probably wonât result in meaningful and long lasting change.The solution should be agreed on with the whole team and the results put in writing. Discuss the solutions together, even if you need to make the final say. Find a solution that seems agreeable and fair to all parties and ensure everyone understands the reasoning behind the solution, even if they would have hoped another outcome.Focus on the positives of the solution. Congratulate people for their efforts during the process and emphasize the importance the solution will have on helping the team thrive and reach previously agreed goals and objectives. Make the conclusion about the positives, not about punishing someone or complaining about the time the team might have lost during the conflict.It also helps to create a more meaningful change by ha ving everyone agree on the solution in paper. You could print out the new commitments or rules youâve decided upon and make sure everyone signs to these rules.The least you should do is to gather the group and make sure everyone is on the same page with the result and understands what the solution means â" i.e. the behaviors that are now expected of them.Step 5: Check up on the conflict parties regularlyYour conflict resolution is probably not the end of it. While you want the âpeace agreementâ to last, you shouldnât take it for granted. Even after the conflict has been solved, you want to engage in conversation with the conflict parties and ensure things are going well. What this does is show commitment on your part to ensure everyone in the team is appreciated and feels comfortable.To check up on the conflict and how the team is doing, you should:Keep an eye on the team atmosphere and focus on trying to sense the mood.Ask how team members are doing and what positive chang es theyâve noted.Avoid reminding people about the reasons behind the conflict, as you donât want to open up old wounds.Enforce and strengthen peopleâs understanding of the team rules and objectives â" create an environment of teamwork.Continue strengthening team trust and co-operation.After a conflict situation, team-building exercises can be extremely useful. Check out the below video for some quick tips on improving team spirit: FINAL THOUGHTSGroup conflicts can happen for a variety of reasons and they can be detrimental to the performance of the team or help the team mould in together. When confronting the issue, the quickest way to solving it is first acknowledging there is an issue and learning about the perspectives that are keeping the conflict alive.You need to know what people feel and think, as well as help them see each otherâs perspective and the common ground they share. Your role should be that of a mediator, yet a manager also canât hide away from the respo nsibility of ensuring thereâs a solution.When you do find a solution, make sure everyone is happy with it and understands the reasoning behind the agreement.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Chapter 10 Pricing Products: Understanding and Capturing Customer Value 1) ________ is the amount of money charged for a product or service. A) Experience curve B) Demand curve C) Price D) Wage E) Salary Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 290 Skill: Concept Objective: 10-1 2) Price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces ________. A) revenue B) variable costs C) expenses D) outfixed costs E) stability Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 290 Skill: Concept Objective: 10-1 3) ________ is an important element in the marketing mix. It is the only element that does not represent costs. A) Current profit maximization B) Market share leadership C) Price D) Product quality leadership E) The target marketÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A) High-low pricing B) Target pricing C) Cost-plus pricing D) EDLP E) Penetration pricing Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 293 Skill: Concept Objective: 10-2 17) ________ involves attaching features and services to differentiate a company s offers and to support charging higher prices.. A) Break-even pricing B) Target pricing C) Value-added pricing D) Cost-plus pricing E) Pricing-down Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 293 Skill: Concept Objective: 10-2 18) ________ is a company s power to escape price competition and to justify higher prices and margins. A) Variable cost B) Pricing power C) Target cost D) Fixed cost E) Unit cost Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 293 Skill: Concept Objective: 10-2 19) To maintain and increase a company s ________, a firm must retain or build the value of its marketing offer. A) variable cost B) pricing power C) target cost D) fixed cost E) image Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 293 Skill: Concept Objective: 10-2 20) When there is price competition, many companies adopt ________ rather than cutting prices to match competitors. A) pricing power B) value-added strategies C) fixed costs D) price elasticity E) image pricing Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 293 Skill: Concept Objective: 10-2 21) Ryanair offers free flights to a quarter of its customers and rock-bottomShow MoreRelatedInternational Marketing Ch 1 Essay1693 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDiscussion Questions for Chapter 1 The Scope and Challenge of International Marketing Discussion Questions |1. |Define: | | | |International marketing |Foreign uncontrollables | | |Controllable elements |Marketing relativism Read More4 Phases of International Marketing Involvement664 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesdecide which stages they would like to go. Define and discuss the idea of global orientation. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Angel Estrada ENGL 2310 - 120 Dr. McGregor April 11, 2017 The Chrysanthemums The difference between men and women is a very controversial issue, while there are obviously physical differences. The problem would be on how the genders are treated. It is stereotypically thought that the men do all the hard work and bring the money to the table, while the women stay at home cooking, cleaning and taking care of the children which are your usual typical housewife. While this stereotype doesn t exist today, it was very common for it to be known in the 1900s. By using many different literary tools such as character development, symbolism, and setting from John Steinbeck s The Chrysanthemums challenges this controversial topic of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When her husband Henry had commented about her strong chrysanthemum crop, Elisa is pleased by the manliness the word implies but her husband reminds her of her femininity by offering her an evening on the town to celebrate the big business deal he had done. After this conversation with her husband, she goes back to her masculine role of transplanting the flowers. Loneliness takes a role from the start on how Elisa is lonely just for the simple fact that she s a woman trapped in a world of men. Steinbeck displays loneliness with The high grey-flannel fog of winter closed off the Salinas Valley from the sky and from all the rest of the world. On every side, it sat like a lid on the mountains and made of the great valley a closed pot (704). While adding the fact that the men do business and Elisa is settled to attend the house it makes a pretty strong sense of solitude. This is soon coming to a change once a man knows as the tinker disrupts her usual solitude. It is when her isolation is broken that the story truly begins to unfold. The tinker is the man that started the change on how Elisa was begging to feel about herself that she wasn t just a women. The tinker which a man which stubble on the Elisa working outside. The tinker hopped out to ask for direction to the hi ghway which then sparked conversation with Elisa that changed it all. Elisa engaged with the tinker to show him on how to return to the highway the man to intrigued had then to notice the little
As a society, we need to realize that with honesty, you have a certain responsibility and walk a fine line between offending people and possibly making racial statements. Therefore, the main difference between my interpretation and the conventional one is my focus is on unintentional vs.. We will write a custom essay sample on Racist Speech or any similar topic only for you Order Now Intentional racist speech. The Balance between racist speech and expression in a college environment can be difficult to decipher; students are encouraged and should express themselves while n campus, this embraces their creativity, passion, talent and allows them to feel Like theyÃ¢â¬â¢re in a safe environment. However, there is a fine line between expressing themselves in an offensive way vs.. An effective way. The article written by Derek Book titled Protecting Freedom of Expression on the Campus focuses on a situation that occurred at Harvard, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"Two students hung Confederate flags in public view, upsetting students who equate the Confederacy with slaveryÃ¢â¬â¢. According to my deflation this Is clearly racist speech and started quite the commotion among the Taft at the prestigious university and caused some other colleges to take racist speech too new level. In Books article his statement of colleges Ã¢â¬Å"some have enacted codes to protect their communities from forms of speech that are deemed to be insensitive to the feelings of other groups. Ã¢â¬ Even the words Ã¢â¬Å"Insensitive to the feelings of other groupsÃ¢â¬ degrades the first amendment and could lead to racism. While some colleges chose not to enforce any restrictions, others varied In their approach and seventy of retribution. There are many ways to deal with this issue but the fact that each institution deals with it differently proves that racist speech continues and the answer remains elusive. Even though communities have the right to regulate speech they must do so very cautiously. If they do, they must apply the rules and limitations across the board and cannot enforce selectively to prohibit certain kind of messages and allow others that they think are acceptable; which can again be portrayed as racist speech. He goes on to say that Ã¢â¬Å"I am sure that the vast majority of Harvard students believe hat hanging a Confederate flag in public view-or displaying a swastika in response-is insensitive and unwise because any satisfaction It gives to the students who display these symbols Is far outweighed by the discomfort It causes to many others. Ã¢â¬ When freedom of speech does not guarantee that the choice made by the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s will be the same choice Book would make. Right after that quote, Book states Ã¢â¬Å"l share this viewÃ¢â¬â¢, but we forget that the flag symbolizing slavery was not the intent but rather an unintentional form of racist speech. If you are an agency of the government including public universities the free speech clause in the first amendment will be upheld even if the event offends the feelings or believes of that community. Book says in his article Ã¢â¬Å"l have difficulty understanding why a university such as Harvard should have less free speech than the surrounding society- or than a public universityÃ¢â¬â¢. In response Harvard is a private university which means it is not obligated to all government rules and regulation, the problem comes from the ambiguous limitations of the first amendment. WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s to say what is offensive or not in the eyes of the law, there are no tangible words for racist speech which results in many different interpretations. Colleges are not the only institutions with this problem; racist speech can be found everywhere. Even President Barack Obama is trying to end discrimination regarding the military and people who have different sexual preferences. The controversial Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t ask, donÃ¢â¬â¢t tellÃ¢â¬ , passed in 1993, prevents gay men and lesbians from revealing their sexual orientation, and prevents the military from asking about it. This discuss policy has been in effect for over 15 years, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s been supported by our military at all levels. However, this law of the Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t ask, donÃ¢â¬â¢t tellÃ¢â¬ policy is unconstitutional because the main purpose of the First Amendment is freedom of speech, if lesbians and gay men are not allowed to have this right in the military; then the military and congress who approved this law are both racist. This is an example of racist speech and our government is acting as if it were a private institution and not part of a government that is owned by the people. President Barack Obama wants to put an end to the anti-gay policy because it clearly sends a message of discrimination regarding the right to freedom of speech. It is a battle between our right to freedom of speech and the Military right to pass a law only because it can. Although these incidents seem quite manageable they can easily become a much bigger problem. For instance what if someone decides to burn the offensive flag at Harvard down, we now have crossed the freedom of speech line and have committed an illegal act. Can you imagine what would happen in our public schools if we tried to enforce Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t ask, donÃ¢â¬â¢t tellÃ¢â¬ . Speech can cross over to action which causes racial tension but is also considered a crime. If you minimize racist speech you put a spotlight on racism only making the situation worse igniting the flames that started the problem in the first place. Book says Ã¢â¬Å"it would be better to ignoreÃ¢â¬ however ignoring the problem is a Band-Aid not a solution. In order to come to a universal agreement that will end racism, means making it a priority to our first amendment. Book says Ã¢â¬Å"The fact that speech is protected by the tuition from Harvard the students who felt offended by the flag that symbolized slavery through their eyes, would strongly disagree with Book protesting that it is our right. However our leaders in congress seem to strongly agree, by their actions of standing by Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t ask DonÃ¢â¬â¢t TellÃ¢â¬ , they must believe gay men and lesbians do not have the right to voice talk or congregate with others of their persuasion while in the service of our government about their sexual preference. As long as there is freedom of speech, it is considered wrong to tell someone what they can or canÃ¢â¬â¢t say. How to cite Racist Speech, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Solomon Northup's 12 Years a Slave narrates the author's life story as a free black man from the North who was kidnapped and sold into slavery in the pre-Civil War South. The son of a liberated slave, Northup was born free. He lived, worked, and married in upstate New York, where his family lived . He was a complex hand and also a skilled violin player. In 1841, two con men offered him lucrative work playing fiddle in a circus, so he traveled with them to Washington, D.C., where he was drugged, kidnapped, and subsequently sold as a slave into the Red River region of Louisiana. For the next twelve years he survived as the human property of several different slave masters, with the majority of his slavery lived under the harsh possession of a southern planter named Edwin Epps. In January 1853, Northup was finally freed by Northern friends who came to his rescue. He returned home to his family in New York and there, with the hel p of editor David Wilson, wrote his account in 12 Years a Slave . 12 Years a Slave serves as a time less indictment of the practice of human slavery. Northup's detailing the abuses he suffered and those he was forced to wreak provides a warning to all generations of the moral costs that slavery takes from everyone involved. The slave himself or herself is degraded, made to suffer awful ordeals , and maliciously robbed of physical, emotional, and spiritual resources . Still, the slave is not the only one who suffers. By participating in slavery, the master is morally degraded and emotionally numb . His religion is made hypocrisy. His family heritage is robbed of basic human elegances like love, justice, and honor . In this respect, Northup's 12 Years a Slave is notable for giving human faces to the evil that was once common practice, and for sounding a constant warning of the awful consequences of slavery. 12 Years a Slave is a testimony to the power of the human spirit and the lasting willpower of courage . Solomon Northup is betrayed , abducted , mistreated , removed from family, deprived of self , and beaten into a long, weary, unjustified submission. Yet he is never shattered . Even in his worst days of sorrow lived under the meanness of Edwin Epps, he never gives up hope that one day he will be free. He never loses faith in his friends, constantly assured that if he can only get word to the North then they will indeed come to his rescue. And they do. In the end, Solomon Northup's heartbreaking voyage lifts because in his testimony is sign that faith and hope can endureand win . The three most important aspects of 12 Years a Slave: 12 Years a Slave presents a startlingly accurate and verifiable account of the common slave experience in the United States in the antebellum (pre-Civil War) South. From start to finis h, basic facts about the time, the places, the people, and the practices of the day are incorporated, sometimes in excessive detail, into Northup's story. He speaks with authority on all subjects of his enslavement, naming names and pointing out markers along the way. In doing so, he dares doubters to undermine his story, knowing that public records and common knowledge would defend it. For example, when Northup accuses a wicked slave trader of keeping him captive in Washington, D.C ., he not only names that slave owners , he names the slaver's coconspirator , identifies exactly where the slave pen is hidden, and describes the physical structure of the slave pen in detail. The result? During the trial that took place after Northup had been freed, that slave trader couldn't deny having kept Northup as his captive in that now-exposed slave pen. Additionally, the accuracy of and factual detail in 12 Years a Slave have kept this book renowned as a dependa ble historical reference on slavery for more than 150 years since it first debuted. CITATION McQ13 \l 1033 (McQueen) Works Cited BIBLIOGRAPHY 12 Years a Slave. Dir. Steve McQueen. 2013. 28 11 2016.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
What You Need to Know About the Weak Force The weak nuclear force is one of the four fundamental forces of physics through which particles interact with each other, together with the strong force, gravity, and electromagnetism. Compared to both electromagnetism and the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force has a much weaker intensity, which is why it has the name weak nuclear force. The theory of the weak force was first proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933 and was known at that time as Fermis interaction. The weak force is mediated by two types of gauge bosons: the Z boson and W boson. Weak Nuclear Force Examples The weak interaction plays a key role in radioactive decay, the violation of both parity symmetry andÃ CP symmetry, and changing the flavor of quarks (as in beta decay). The theory that describes the weak force is called quantum flavourdynamics (QFD), which is analogous to quantum chromodynamics (QCD) for the strong force and quantum electrodynamics (QFD) for the electromagnetic force. Electro-weak theory (EWT) is the more popular model of the nuclear force. Also Known As:Ã The weak nuclear force is also referred to as: the weak force, the weak nuclear interaction, and the weak interaction. Properties of the Weak Interaction The weak force is different from the other forces: It is the only force that violatesÃ parity-symmetry (P).It is the only force that violates charge-parity symmetry (CP).It is the only interaction that can change one kind of quark into another or its flavor.The weak force is propagated by carrier particles that have significant masses (about 90Ã GeV/c). The key quantum number for particles in the weak interaction is a physical property known as the weak isospin, which is equivalent to the role that electric spin plays in the electromagnetic force and color charge in the strong force. This is a conserved quantity, meaning that any weak interaction will have a total isospin sum at the end of the interaction as it had at the beginning of the interaction. The following particles have a weak isospin of 1/2: electron neutrinomuon neutrinotau neutrinoup quarkcharm quarktop quark The following particles have a weak isospin of -1/2: electronmuontaudown quarkstrange quarkbottom quark The Z boson and W boson are both much more massive than the other gauge bosons that mediate the other forces (the photon for electromagnetism and the gluon for the strong nuclear force). The particles are so massive that they decay very quickly in most circumstances. The weak force has been unified together with the electromagnetic force as a single fundamental electroweak force, which manifests at high energy (such as those found within particle accelerators). This unification work received the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics, and further work on proving that the mathematical foundations of the electroweak force were renormalizable received the 1999 Nobel Prize in Physics. Edited by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Monday, March 2, 2020
5 Sentences Repaired by Correct Use of Commas 5 Sentences Repaired by Correct Use of Commas 5 Sentences Repaired by Correct Use of Commas By Mark Nichol 1. Ã¢â¬Å"Students write a third essay regarding the impact of geography on history and culture.Ã¢â¬ The implication of this sentence is that students produce three essays on the topic in question. But if the preceding text refers to differing topics for the first two essays, the sentence suffers from insufficient differentiation. This revision specifies that the third essayÃ¢â¬â¢s topic differs from those of the others: Ã¢â¬Å"Students write a third essay, this one regarding the impact of geography on history and culture.Ã¢â¬ 2. Ã¢â¬Å"Students participate in a workshop on learning to research effectively and refine their search with a professional researcher.Ã¢â¬ The relationship between the verb phrases in this sentence is unclear: Do students first participate in a workshop and then refine their research, or do they participate in a workshop about researching effectively, during which they also refine their search? Either way, the sentence, because of the ambiguity, is erroneously organized. If the former meaning is intended, the sentence should read, Ã¢â¬Å"Students participate in a workshop in which they first learn to research effectively and then refine their search with a professional researcher.Ã¢â¬ If the latter meaning is the correct interpretation, it should read, Ã¢â¬Å"Students participate in a workshop on learning to research effectively, and then refine their search with a professional researcher.Ã¢â¬ 3. Ã¢â¬Å"He invoked the dreaded comparison with Mary Smith, only Jones has been more successful in her sport than Smith.Ã¢â¬ Because of the paucity of punctuation in this sentence, the sentence could be read as containing a comma splice, an error in which a comma is incorrectly employed in place of a more substantial punctuation mark. But if a semicolon or a period separates the two clauses, and the second element (depending on which punctuation mark is used, an independent clause or a separate sentence) seems to imply that no one other than Jones has been more successful than Smith, a non sequitur results. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s much more likely that only serves as a less formal synonym for however. However, just as when that word is used, the sentence still requires stronger punctuation to clarify its function: Ã¢â¬Å"He invoked the dreaded comparison with Mary Smith; only, Jones has been more successful in her sport than Smith.Ã¢â¬ The semicolon seems too formal for the casual only, though; a dash seems more appropriate. Either way, however, only must be set off from the following statement by a comma: Ã¢â¬Å"He invoked the dreaded comparison with Mary Smith only, Jones has been more successful in her sport than Smith.Ã¢â¬ 4. Ã¢â¬Å"She also uses a Geiger counter, which measures radiation; motion detectors; barometric-pressure monitors; and thermometers.Ã¢â¬ This sentence, containing four listed elements only one of which, the first, is modified is hampered by the notion that because of that extra phrase, the usual commas must be promoted to semicolons to bear the burden of supporting the sentenceÃ¢â¬â¢s structure. When used with such short phrases, however, the semicolons seem overbearing. The simple insertion of the conjunction plus, which serves to provide more distance between sentence elements than the standard and, obviates the complicating semicolon solution: Ã¢â¬Å"She also uses a Geiger counter, which measures radiation, plus thermometers, motion detectors, and barometric pressure monitors.Ã¢â¬ (Notice that, for euphony, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve reordered the additional list items according to the number of syllables in each item.) 5. Ã¢â¬Å"The majority has upheld the act in whole, not by relying on an expansive reading of the commerce clause, but on CongressÃ¢â¬â¢s firmly rooted power to tax.Ã¢â¬ The initial proposition in this sentence, Ã¢â¬Å"The majority has upheld the act in whole not by relying on an expansive reading of the commerce clause . . .,Ã¢â¬ is a continuous thought, and there is no reason to include punctuation within it. But thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a larger problem: The sentence is not parallel. Relying should be repositioned to serve both propositions (those beginning Ã¢â¬Å"not onÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"but onÃ¢â¬ ), because the structure of the two phrases, in the original sentence respectively headed by Ã¢â¬Å"not byÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"but on,Ã¢â¬ is discordant. The solution, which (like Ã¢â¬Å"not only . . . but alsoÃ¢â¬ constructions), requires no internal punctuation: Ã¢â¬Å"The majority has upheld the act in whole by relying not on an expansive reading of the commerce clause but on CongressÃ¢â¬â¢s firmly rooted power to tax.Ã¢â¬ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:How to Format a US Business Letter44 Resume Writing TipsOne Scissor?